ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
We implement the FACTS devices based on the following source:
A. Panosyan, “Modeling of advanced power transmission system controllers”, Ph.D. dissertation, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, 2010.
ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) device is a series element that controles the power flowing through its path by regulating its impedance. The TCSC device is very similar to the Static Var Compensator (SVC)  in fact, it is its series counterpart. Indeed, a TCSC device consists of a parallel circuit of a fixed capacitor and a reactor controlled by a pair of antiparallel thyristors. In contrast to SVC, a TCSC device is connected in series in the power system. For more context, be advised to read the documentation for the SVC elements:
See also
See also
We demonstrate the usecase of this device in the pandapower tutorial: FACTS.
Create Function
 pandapower.create.create_tcsc(net, from_bus, to_bus, x_l_ohm, x_cvar_ohm, set_p_to_mw, thyristor_firing_angle_degree, name=None, controllable=True, in_service=True, index=None, min_angle_degree=90, max_angle_degree=180, **kwargs)
Creates a TCSC element  series impedance compensator to control series reactance. The TCSC device allows controlling the active power flow throgh the path it is connected in.
Multiple TCSC elements in net are possible. Unfortunately, TCSC is not implemented for the case when multiple TCSC elements have the same from_bus or the same to_bus.
Note: in the NewtonRaphson power flow calculation, the initial voltage vector is adjusted slightly if the initial voltage at the from bus is the same as at the to_bus to avoid some terms in J (for TCSC) becoming zero.
min_angle_degree, max_angle_degree are placehowlders (ignored in the NewtonRaphson power flow at the moment).
 INPUT:
net (pandapowerNet)  The pandapower network in which the element is created
from_bus (int)  starting bus of the tcsc
to_bus (int)  ending bus of the tcsc
x_l_ohm (float)  impedance of the reactor component of tcsc
x_cvar_ohm (float)  impedance of the fixed capacitor component of tcsc
set_p_to_mw (float)  setpoint for the branch active power at the to_bus
 thyristor_firing_angle_degree (float)  the value of thyristor firing angle of tcsc (is used directly if
controllable==False, otherwise is the starting point in the NewtonRaphson calculation)
 OPTIONAL:
name (list of strs, None)  element name
 controllable (bool, True)  whether the element is considered as actively controlling
or as a fixed series impedance
in_service (bool, True)  True for in_service or False for out of service
 index (int, None)  Force a specified ID if it is available. If None, the
index one higher than the highest already existing index is selected.
min_angle_degree (float, 90)  minimum value of the thyristor_firing_angle_degree
max_angle_degree (float, 180)  maximum value of the thyristor_firing_angle_degree
 OUTPUT:
index (int)  The unique ID of the created tcsc
Input Parameters
net.tcsc
Parameter 
Datatype 
Value Range 
Explanation 
name 
string 
name of the TCSC 

from_bus* 
integer 
index of the from bus where the TCSC is connected 

to_bus* 
integer 
index of the to bus where the TCSC is connected 

x_l_ohm* 
float 
\(\geq\) 0 
impedance of the reactor component of TCSC 
x_cvar_ohm* 
float 
\(\leq\) 0 
impedance of the fixed capacitor component of TCSC 
set_p_to_mw* 
float 
setpoint for the power flowing through the TCSC element at the to bus 

thyristor_firing_angle_degree* 
float 
:math:90 leq 180 
the value of thyristor firing angle of TCSC 
controllable* 
boolean 
True / False 
whether the element is considered as actively controlling or as a fixed series impedance 
in_service* 
boolean 
True / False 
specifies if the TCSC is in service. 
min_angle_degree 
float 
\(\geq\) 90 
minimum value of the thyristor_firing_angle_degree 
max_angle_degree 
float 
\(\leq\) 180 
maximum value of the thyristor_firing_angle_degree 
*necessary for executing a power flow calculation.
Electric Model
The series impedance \(X_{TCSC}\) of the TCSC element is calculated equivalently to SVC, according to the following equation:
The term \(X_L\) stands for the reactance of the reactor (x_l_ohm) and the term \(X_{Cvar}\) stands for the total capacitance (x_cvar_ohm). The thyristor firing angle \(\alpha\) is the state variable that on the one hand defines the impedance of the element, and at the same time is the result of the NewtonRaphson calculation. The admittance \(Y_{TCSC}\) equals \(1j \frac{1}{X_{TCSC}}\).
The power flow through the TCSC element is described by the following equation:
Result Parameters
net.res_tcsc
Parameter 
Datatype 
Explanation 
thyristor_firing_angle_degree* 
float 
the resulting value of thyristor firing angle of tcsc [degree] 
x_ohm 
float 
resulting value of the shunt impedance of tcsc [Ohm] 
p_from_mw 
float 
active power consumed at the from bus of tcsc [MW] 
q_from_mvar 
float 
reactive power consumed at the from bus of tcsc [MVAr] 
p_to_mw 
float 
active power consumed at the to bus of tcsc [MW] 
q_to_mvar 
float 
reactive power consumed at the to bus of tcsc [MVAr] 
p_l_mw 
float 
active power losses of tcsc [MW] 
q_l_mvar 
float 
reactive power losses of tcsc [MVAr] 
vm_from_pu 
float 
voltage magnitude at the from bus [pu] 
va_from_degree 
float 
voltage angle at the from bus [degree] 
vm_to_pu 
float 
voltage magnitude at the to bus [pu] 
va_to_degree 
float 
voltage angle at the to bus [degree] 