Load¶
Note
Loads should always have a positive p_mw value, since all power values are given in the consumer system. If you want to model constant generation, use a Static Generator (sgen element) instead of a negative load.
See also
Create Function¶

pandapower.
create_load
(net, bus, p_mw, q_mvar=0, const_z_percent=0, const_i_percent=0, sn_mva=nan, name=None, scaling=1.0, index=None, in_service=True, type='wye', max_p_mw=nan, min_p_mw=nan, max_q_mvar=nan, min_q_mvar=nan, controllable=nan)¶ Adds one load in table net[“load”].
All loads are modelled in the consumer system, meaning load is positive and generation is negative active power. Please pay attention to the correct signing of the reactive power as well.
 INPUT:
net  The net within this load should be created
bus (int)  The bus id to which the load is connected
 OPTIONAL:
p_mw (float, default 0)  The real power of the load
 postive value > load
 negative value > generation
q_mvar (float, default 0)  The reactive power of the load
const_z_percent (float, default 0)  percentage of p_mw and q_mvar that will be associated to constant impedance load at rated voltage
const_i_percent (float, default 0)  percentage of p_mw and q_mvar that will be associated to constant current load at rated voltage
sn_mva (float, default None)  Nominal power of the load
name (string, default None)  The name for this load
scaling (float, default 1.)  An OPTIONAL scaling factor to be set customly
type (string, ‘wye’)  type variable to classify the load: wye/delta
index (int, None)  Force a specified ID if it is available. If None, the index one higher than the highest already existing index is selected.
in_service (boolean)  True for in_service or False for out of service
max_p_mw (float, default NaN)  Maximum active power load  necessary for controllable loads in for OPF
min_p_mw (float, default NaN)  Minimum active power load  necessary for controllable loads in for OPF
max_q_mvar (float, default NaN)  Maximum reactive power load  necessary for controllable loads in for OPF
min_q_mvar (float, default NaN)  Minimum reactive power load  necessary for controllable loads in OPF
 controllable (boolean, default NaN)  States, whether a load is controllable or not. Only respected for OPF
 Defaults to False if “controllable” column exists in DataFrame
 OUTPUT:
 index (int)  The unique ID of the created element
 EXAMPLE:
 create_load(net, bus=0, p_mw=10., q_mvar=2.)

pandapower.
create_load_from_cosphi
(net, bus, sn_mva, cos_phi, mode, **kwargs)¶ Creates a load element from rated power and power factor cos(phi).
 INPUT:
net  The net within this static generator should be created
bus (int)  The bus id to which the load is connected
sn_mva (float)  rated power of the load
cos_phi (float)  power factor cos_phi
mode (str)  “ind” for inductive or “cap” for capacitive behaviour
**kwargs are passed on to the create_load function
 OUTPUT:
 index (int)  The unique ID of the created load
All elements are modeled from a consumer point of view. Active power will therefore always be positive, reactive power will be negative for inductive behaviour and positive for capacitive behaviour.
Input Parameters¶
net.load
Parameter  Datatype  Value Range  Explanation 
name  string  name of the load  
bus *  integer  index of connected bus  
p_mw*  float  \(\geq 0\)  active power of the load [MW] 
q_mvar*  float  reactive power of the load [MVar]  
const_z_percent*  float  \([0,100]\)  percentage of p_mw and q_mvar that is associated to constant impedance load at rated voltage [\(\%\)] 
const_i_percent*  float  \([0,100]\)  percentage of p_mw and q_mvar that is associated to constant current load at rated voltage [\(\%\)] 
sn_mva  float  \(>0\)  rated power of the load [kVA] 
scaling *  float  \(\geq 0\)  scaling factor for active and reactive power 
in_service*  boolean  True / False  specifies if the load is in service. 
type*  String  wye/delta  Connection Type of 3 Phase Load(Valid for three phase load flow only) 
controllable**  bool  States if load is controllable or not, load will not be used as a flexibilty if it is not controllable  
max_p_mw**  float  Maximum active power  
min_p_mw**  float  Minimum active power  
max_q_mvar**  float  Maximum reactive power  
min_q_mvar**  float  Minimum reactive power 
*necessary for executing a power flow calculation.
Note
The apparent power value sn_mva is provided as additional information for usage in controller or other applications based on panadapower. It is not considered in the power flow!
Electric Model¶
Loads are modelled as PQbuses in the power flow calculation, with an option to use the socalled ZIP load model, where a load is represented as a composition of constant power (P), constant current (I) and constant impedance (Z):
What part of the load is considered constant with constant power, constant current or constant impedance is defined as follows:
The load power values are then defines as:
Result Parameters¶
net.res_load
Parameter  Datatype  Explanation 
p_mw  float  resulting active power demand after scaling and after considering voltage dependence [MW] 
q_mvar  float  resulting reactive power demand after scaling and after considering voltage dependence [MVar] 
The power values in the net.res_load table are equivalent to \(P_{load}\) and \(Q_{load}\).